An overview of the architecture and its evolution in the ancient state
1 – Factors that influenced ancient Egyptian architecture
2 – Technology of construction science.
3 – The most important features of ancient Egyptian architecture.
4. Use stones.
5 – the most important architectural elements in Egyptian architecture.
6. Materials used in construction.
7 – engineers and their jobs and famous.
Factors affecting the ancient Egyptian buildings:
Since ancient geological times, Egypt has had the natural ecological components and elements necessary for the establishment of a long-standing local civilization. These environmental elements have also affected the oldest human species that settled in the land of Egypt and influenced the emergence of ancient Egyptian civilization and contributed to its growth thanks to the efforts of ancient Egyptian human beings. Hence, the Egyptian artist does not know about the different factors in which he had a clear influence, such as the nature of Egypt and its impact on its inhabitants and artists, which is characterized by the strength of personality and clarity of its features and manifestations and the regularity of their conditions.
It is wrong to compare the art of a country with the art of another country. All of this is because art in general and architecture, in particular, are influenced by many different factors related to the state such as geographical, climatic, religious and other influences.
1 Geographical factors:
The man’s relationship with his geographical environment has a mutual effect, and the man found other sources which he exploited for his benefit and stability, and the building of his civilization, such as depressions that turned into lakes. Egypt enjoyed a distinct geographic location, located between the three continents. When the ancient Egyptians express Egypt called it many names such as:
Kemeh black earth , a symbol for the color of the soil and the density of planting and made the name of many other names such as (Ta Nkimh) and perhaps because it is located on a narrow fertile strip of land on the Nile River shores has Also known as (Darsher) and means red ground reference to the Egyptian desert as it was known as
(Tamhru), (Tammmu), (Tamri), (Edboy) meaning the eye of the gods (the same mihrabs) and called (Magro) and in the heavenly books in the name of Egypt as defined in the texts of the modern state, called Tamri (flood) and known in the Ptolemaic period (The land of miracles (Tanthro) land sanctities and in the Assyrian texts under the name (Moheri).
Egypt has been located in the far east of the African continent and occupies an area of 3% of the area of Africa. Therefore, Egypt is an important part of the region of the emergence of civilizations of the ancient East and regardless of the chronological order and control of the site in transport East and West, The great similarity in architecture in Egypt and its neighboring countries, especially the architectural planning of houses, the various decorative designs, the bricks and the building on the high artificial hills, and the construction of dams and arches along the Nile to benefit from flood waters, which increased the area of agricultural land It was one of the reasons for unification.
2- Geological factor:
The sources and natural resources of each region determine the characteristics of its architectural character. Egypt was rich in limestone and sandstone, as well as Alabaster and granite, which are used beside the buildings in decorative artifacts. Egypt is poor in primary minerals, but the abundance of different stones in Egypt allowed the construction of large temples, The rough red granite was used in the manufacture of huge statues and the small blackness of the quality of the material and keep it color, while the hills and hills surrounding the valley was covered with forests with dense trees and mosquito because of the rainy period in Neolithic period. As well as the abundance of sewers and marshes rich in plants, especially papyrus and lotus and used the ancient Egyptian timber in various architectural works also participated with bricks in the architecture for ease of formation and licenses and warmth and then tended to use stones clearly in the third family.
Masri was able to adapt his buildings to adapt to the nature of the climatic factors prevailing in the country. When Egypt was characterized by abundant rain during the pre-family era used ancient Egyptian sloping bishop, which we see the royal burial chambers in the pyramids, especially during the old state has seen the Earth in the time of plastocene four times Different from the ice crest on the northern regions of the ball of the Earth on the one hand and four periods of heavy rain on the southern side and on the other hand has been signed the area of the emergence of civilization in the middle between the ice crest from the north and rain from the south, It is characterized by a relatively mild climate and therefore does not impede the freedom of movement and movement. All this led to the fact that the facades of the temples are not perforated or perforated with holes which were added to the darkness, which gives the feeling of the required reverence in the temple. From the religious point of view, Suffice it to use thick roofs of stone to be:
1. Availability of a climate conducive to germination, growth, and harvesting.
2 – Availability of rich fertile soil and silt brought by flood waters.
3 – Availability of water at all times of the year, whether from the Nile or the availability of winter rains.
4- The abundance of different materials needed for artistic creation and different architectural elements.
4- Religious factor:
There is nothing in the history of the world where his religion was rooted and mixed with the water of its people such as Egypt. Hence when talking about the religious factor, we are half the most important part of the history of their ancient city. The Greek historian Herodotus states in a way that clearly shows that he was firmly convinced that Egyptians’ To the degree of obsession has exceeded all standards and has built wisdom on it through various religious rites and various architectural installations have reached the extent of exaggeration in the manifestations of the departure of the establishment of many large buildings there is no graves in the world like the Great Pyramids or tombs carved in rock My goodness. Hence, the religious influences played a role in the activity of architecture, where the Egyptians paid attention to the construction of the houses of worship to care for the cemetery’s construction as immortal houses while the palaces and dwellings were built of bricks and burned as the houses of the fleeting world, although they took care of the decoration of their ceilings and the higher walls and sometimes the floor The spirit of joy upon it and when divided the Egyptian gods of two types of local gods and the other cosmic architecture has differed to each other, we note that the cosmic gods arose because of the effects of the demonstration of nature on Achila Egyptian saw in the sun and the moon and the earth and The sky, water, and air god welcomes her and sanctifies her wherever she is. Hence, she has set up her architectural structure in the air to accommodate this worship, as it appeared in the temples of the sun in Heliopolis, Abu Sair and the city of Tel Amarna, while the other was in complete darkness. Dedicated to the dead influenced in form and layout
5 – Social factors:
There are no major sources of credit due to our knowledge of architecture, which we see saved from the writings and drawings written on the walls of the Pharaonic buildings as well as what was found in the papyrus found and the writings of the Greeks and perhaps the most beautiful drawings found in some graves The ancient Egyptians in Taibeh and Saqqara represented the Egyptians in their daily work in sport, fishing, their work in the field and in their industries. The handicrafts industries were flourishing, such as textiles, glass, daggers, metals, jewelry, and furniture.
The flourishing of these industries has had the greatest impact on the prosperity of Egyptian life among the nations and the peoples of the earth. Perhaps what is in the Egyptian Museum and in the world’s famous museums is the greatest evidence of this. This development was evidence of the development of architecture. When his life depended on traveling, From light materials can be carried from one place to another, but once you know about agriculture began to move to the stability and animalization and began to build huts and fixed houses made up of structures of wooden boards and then mud and brick bricks.
6. Historical factor:
That the historical events and political situations have had a great impact on architectural activity and also the external conditions affected the architecture in Egypt, we notice during the era of the ancient state has seen the country’s architectural development so enormous that the era of this era was built by the pyramids because of the construction of the three Giza pyramids and note that the country during this The period was characterized by political stability internally and externally, which affected the treasury of the state by force and wealth and in the era of the Hyksos, the country has experienced stagnation in all areas, including architecture. In the era of the modern state, the country witnessed the greatest period of ancient Egyptian architecture. After Egypt was relieved of the Hyksos, they were expelled and became a good capital of Egypt and increased prosperity and prosperity. Despite the external activity, however, the kings encouraged the establishment of buildings and architectural structures.
Egyptian architecture is classified as follows:
A – Models and music
B – funeral architecture
(C) Religious architecture
(D) Civil and military architecture
A – Models and Mosques:
The obelisk is a piece of granite that digs on the ground and is centered vertically. It is a square flat that recedes at the top and ends in a small pyramid. The obelisk is usually written on the name of the pharaoh and the words of supplication and supplication of the god for whom the temple was erected. It is usually at the top of the temples, the most famous of which is the Hatshepsut obelisk and its height is 33.20 meters. The temple of Luxor is 25 meters long and weighs 257 tons and the second is located in Paris in the Concorde Square, which is 22.14 meters long and weighs 220 tons.
Egyptians borrowed forms of nature to beautify the columns, and these columns later bore the name of the flower or the plants that took shape.
The column is usually divided into a leg, base, and crown with a square cushion separating the crown from the building block.
Column types are:
1 – simple column: the oldest columns in that civilization, and has no crown and no base and sector of four equal sides, and is located in the Valley temple near the Abyssinia and Saqqara.
2 – Column quasi-league: The Greek league is similar to two types:
** Polygon: It has a square crown, a polygon leg and around the base.
** Technician: It is similar to the polygon, but its ribs have been channeled to 16-18 channels and have a base and crown of square shape (found in Karnak and Deir Al Bahari).
Papyriform: It is called papyrus. It has a crown of several flowers. Its stem is also composed of floral stems. It is a triangular piece. The bottom of the crown has 5 ligaments and has a round base (found in the temple of Amun and Luxor).
There is another model with a single leg above a closed or open-shaped flower campaniform.
- Lotiform column (lotiform): The name belongs to the lotus flower lotus and has three types:
** Crown consisting of a single flower in the shape of a bud and a cylindrical leg.
** A crown composed of a single flower in the form of a bell (ie bell) inverted situation.
** Crown consisting of several flowers closed – Kalbradi – leg of the stems of these flowers
It is a round shape that collects at the bottom of the 5 ligament crown.
5 – palmiform column: palm crown consisting of palm group, upper limbs
To the outside, connect 5 ligaments at the bottom of the crown.
6 – Historique (hatorique): the proportion of the god of the hater and symbolized by a cow. Cube crown
The shape has facets where the god appears as a hatter or symbol and the crown is topped by a cube of the same size
It is an additionally engraved crown (Dandara Temple).
- composite column: a mixture of a lutei and a palm crown and the colors were used brilliantly.
B – Funeral architecture:
It is an architecture that deals with tombs, pyramids, and terraces.
1 – terraces: The first found in the catacombs of bricks, some of them with drawers, and then added to the ground floor of the brick also allocated to save the deceased’s things and furniture and then became in the form of a terrace. The mausoleum was the tombs of senior officials. It is a pyramid structure with a small door above the ground. Below it is an underground burial chamber surrounded by stone and connected to the main building, the so-called well, which is covered with a stone that is difficult to distinguish from other surface stones. The main building consists of two sections: the basement and the temple.
The walls were decorated with engravings with some statues. One of the most beautiful terraces is the Tasqubah (T) in Saqqara.
2 – pyramids listed: After the terraces have emerged pyramids are identical terraces in the form of a runway, the first was the pyramid of Sakkara, which was established during the reign of Zoser. It consists of 6 layers and the upper terrace contains a few chapels with a grandparent, the first stone building in history.
C – Pyramids: The development of the pyramids during the Fourth Dynasty, and became a temple, where people receive blessing and prayer. This temple is associated with funerary construction by an ascending stone road ؤovers the room of the grave.
The pyramids were designated tombs for the Pharaohs. The most famous of them were the pyramids of Giza, the pyramid of Khufu (137 m), the pyramid of Khafra (136) and the Haram of Makkah (62 m).
Good for Khufu’s pyramid:
Is the largest and most important pyramids, located in Giza near Cairo and is the author of a pyramid building within it descending and ascending catacombs leading to the room of the grave. The base of the pyramid is 230 m and its height is 147 m. It has been corroded with the days and is now 137 m high and was covered with marble. The building was made of limestone.
The top of the pyramid was granite and the stone was paved with horizontal surfaces quite gradually. The basements were mud and brick sloping up or down and were multiple in order to mislead the interior undesirable.
The pyramid was completed around 2600 BC. It is believed that the number of blocks is about 2.500.000 block weighing about 6.500.000 tons, we can cover the whole of France with these blocks by a wall that rises 3 m (do not forget Ahn of the seven wonders of the world).
Sphinx: The statue of the Sphinx is attached to this pyramid is a statue of half a human being and a half
An animal is sculpted with a mass of 20 m. It represents the pharaoh (the king and the god at the same time).
D – Funeral Temple: The pyramids architecture collapsed in the Central Empire but in the modern Empire. The graves were returned to the grave, but the temple was separated from the tomb. A stone road appeared between the temple of the visit and the funerary temple, and the tomb became stable under the ground in a place that consisted of a corridor, a staircase and a room leading to the Hall of Atonement. The funerary temple is composed of two doors and a gallery leading up to the edifice, leading to the colonnaded hall and then to three halls that include the king’s palace.
C – Religious architecture:
1 – Temple of the sun: the temples open to the sky, consisting of a rectangular wall in the form of a rectangle, and on the southern side is erected an obelisk engraved with the symbol of the sun, and connects the temple stone road in a hall in the city. In the west and out of the wall, it is connected to an oval mural (seen as the solar boat). Examples of these temples are the Temple (Abi Gharib).
2 – Religious Temples: The first temples consisted of a front door with a door open to a large lobby connected to seven halls is a fountain. Only one of these temples remained in Madi. But there are two other types of religious temples, including flat temples such as the Great Temple of Amun and other temples carved in the mountain, similar to the great temple of Abu Sinbel.
3 – Temple of Amun the Great (Karnak): The building of the temple of this temple about 350 m and direction from west to east. It includes the following elements:
– Two balanced rows of rams: statues three times the size of the natural, with the heads of the grapes and black bodies, representing the god Amun Ra. The length of this walkway is 72 m and width 13 m and in each row 20 statues.
– The edifice
(Pylone): It is a huge mural building rises 44 meters and 113 meters width and thickness of the base of 15 m and gradually decreasing thickness with the height and the middle of this edifice entrance to the main temple, and on the wall and engraved inscriptions and the writings of Heroglip refers to work and victories of war.
– A courtyard or a dish: it is exposed from the center and set on both sides of a row of columns; in the middle are two other columns of papyrus (21 m height and a diameter of 2.7 m) along the row of rams. Each row consists of five columns.
This part of the temple is the temple built by Ramses I but added to it later the lobby of the columns ends with another psalm and two pedestals in the front and a sacred room.
The lobby of the columns: salle hypostyle is 102m x 51 m and contains 124 columns divided into 16 lines, including 12 columns higher than the other and placed in two rows in the middle, the height of the mayors 21 m and the diameter of 3,57 m, the highest column known in the world.
The other columns are 13 meters high and 2.80 meters in diameter. These columns bore a stone ceiling on two levels, allowing the side openings from the center to enter the light and the air. This lobby ends with the inauguration of Amenhotep III.
– Musallan: Traditionally, two statues were erected in front of the sides of the edifice. In the temple of Amun, an obelisk was found for Tuthmosis the First and another for Hatshepsut, which is 33,20 m long and is the longest.
– The Holy Tabernacle: It is a dark room with no light but from the door and the statue of the god to whom the temple was erected.
4 – Temple of Abu Sennel big: It carved in a mountain mass at the bottom of the south, and in front of four large statues representing Ramses II sitting next to some of his wives and sons and daughters, rising face 33 m and extends horizontally 38 m, and the height of each of the statues 20 m. Its façade is bordered by a small door leading to the lobby of the columns, which is adorned with columns with statues of the king in the form of Osiris. The walls and ceiling are decorated with winged falcon or glittering stars and the Battle of Cadiz in bright colors.
From the lobby of the columns to a second hall, the drawings of Ramesses II were inscribed on the columns and then to the holy room (Holy of Holies), which is 63 m from the entrance to the temple.
It is worth mentioning that the sun illuminates its facade and goes deep into the Holy of Holies.
In 1970, this temple and the small temple next to it were moved from the flooded area to its new location at 200 m and 63 m high.
- Civil and military architecture:
It was less important than religious architecture, but that does not preclude its existence.
- Houses: The houses were built of light materials, so it has no effect today. Later it became
The houses consist of a courtyard connected to a bungalow.
In the modern empire, there are luxurious homes with gardens, lakes, and caves.