The Nile was given to Egypt, and that was the main factor for Egypt to be an agricultural country since ancient times, and agriculture was the basis of prosperity and wealth of the country. The ancient Egyptians were interested in observing the Nile River and the rise of its water by means of measurements because this is a good harbinger. Ancient Egyptians were also interested in the good exploitation of the Nile water, they dug canals and canals, and built dams to reserve water and save for the time of need.
Department of Ancient Egyptian agricultural year to three agricultural chapters are:
- Separation of immersion: is the chapter in which the flood waters flood the agricultural land, and extends from mid-June to mid-October.
- Seeding: This is the season in which farmers sow grain, and it extends from mid-October to mid-February.
- Harvest season: from mid-February to mid-June.
The land was grown once a year.
The most famous crops in Pharaonic Egypt
Ancient Egyptians planted wheat and barley for the manufacture of bread, linen for the textile industry, and legumes: beans, lentils, chickpeas and tarmac, and vegetables: onions and lettuce; sesame seeds were planted for oil extraction; fruit trees: grapes, pomegranates,
Dough fermentation and baking industry – these models of servants and preoccupied with daily activities, were placed in the tombs of the pharaohs to ensure the dead a good life in the afterlife. This group was made of lacquered wood, linen and clay, and dates back to the beginning of the Twelfth Dynasty (1801-1980 BC).
Ancient Egyptians used tools such as an ax, plow, machete, and sledgehammer in agricultural operations. They also used shadow to deliver water to the high ground.
The plowing and sowing of grain began in October after the Nile flood had receded. In this wall painting we see a man driving a plow dragged by a pair of oxen, and behind him, his wife follows him as she sows seeds. In the lower part of the picture, we see the Nile River lined with palm trees.
In September the water begins to recede from the land, and the farmers then plow it, then plow it, then sow the grain, and then market the sheep in the field, so that the seeds are planted in the soil. Farmers continue to take care of their planting, even if they are ripened, harvested, and then carry the crop on donkeys to the vines. In the aprons, they drive the bulls over the crop, and then the process of ejaculation begins to separate the husks from the grains, while they sing fresh songs and sing beautiful songs. In the end, the grain is stored in clay silos like the silos of the current farmers. In fact, the Egyptian farmer was active in agriculture and a lover of it, because he depended on it for life.
A wooden model of a wheat store found in an ancient Egyptian cemetery. The grains were added to the store through the openings in the roof and emptied when needed through the sliding openings in the store wall.
Breeding of animals and birds
Ancient Egyptian interest in raising birds, such as ducks, pigeons, and geese, was also concerned with the raising of animals such as cows, sheep, and donkeys, where he used in agricultural operations, as he was benefiting from her meat, skin, and hair.
The fertile environment of the ancient Egyptian Nile provided a diverse diet. In this wall painting, grapes are collected and trampled to extract grape juice, as we see the process of catching birds and plucking their feathers, and also show groups of fish and birds after they were caught and transported.
Ownership of agricultural land
All the agricultural land in ancient Egypt belonged to the king, and the farmers had to plant it, and at harvest, they took their livelihood from it. Pharaoh was given to the loyal soldiers and the excellent servant’s agricultural lands that belonged to them and their heirs. Hence, there was no private ownership of agricultural lands in Pharaonic Egypt.
The industry progresses and thrives on what the environment offers from agricultural materials, mines or quarries. God has given our dear Egypt this nature which helps in the establishment of industry. The ancient Egyptians exploited the materials provided by the environment and managed to do a lot. In tombs, temples, and pyramids, there is greatness, grace, accuracy, and beauty.
The most important industries in Pharaonic Egypt
* Stone-based industries
Stone industries The oldest Egyptian industries, and the first industries by the ancient Egyptian man, from stone making pots, jars, weapons and coffins, and used in the manufacture of marble antiques.
* Ceramic, ceramic and glass industries
Ancient Egyptian excelled in the manufacture of pottery since ancient times, it used good clay, then burn with fire, and then decorated with drawings and engravings and beautiful pictures. Also use ancient Egyptian foliage to make beautiful paintings, decades, and cladding walls and doors. Ancient Egyptians were the first peoples of the earth to manufacture and glass.
* Leather industries
The ancient Egyptian knew the importance of leather, so he dyed it and dyed it, and then made the slippers, leather belts, chair covers, and mirror boxes. The goatskin was also used to transport water and save liquids. White leather was used in writing alongside papyrus.
* Metal industries
A pharaonic jewel of the 20th or 19th century BC, a bracelet and a bracelet with gold beads and colored stones such as calfrose.
The ancient Egyptian was able to make his tools, such as weapons and copper ornaments, as bronze in the manufacture of small statues, also made the old Egyptian ornaments of gold, silver and precious stones. All these industries confirm the artistic taste of the Egyptian manufacturers, and the finest craftsmanship, and one of the most beautiful of those industries found in the tomb of Tutankhamun, which still amazes the world to this day.
* Wood Industries
The ancient Egyptians imported cedar wood from Phenicia (Lebanon), from which they made ships, coffins, beds, and seats. They imported ebony from Nubia and Puntland (Somalia). The ancient Egyptians had to import good wood, because Egyptian wood, such as sycamore, acacia, and willow, was not suitable for good industry. The ancient Egyptian used a lot of tools such as a chisel and saw, and he excelled in the art of digging wood and inlaid with ivory and ebony.
The throne of the golden throne, which was found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun (1361-1352 BC). The shapes shown on it show the Egyptian royal garments used in this period (1350 BC).
* Textile industry
The ancient Egyptian succeeded in making his linen clothes. This linen was thin, silk-like, heavy-type. The textile process was preceded by spinning with wood spinners made by women. Also, use ancient Egyptian colors in the decoration of clothing.
* Papyrus based industries
Papyrus Harvest – In the upper section of this color-coated stereogram we see men collecting papyrus from the edge of the Nile River, while in the lower section a flock of cattle crosses. Papyrus had many uses, making paper, slippers, boxes, ropes, and boats.
The ancient Egyptians took advantage of papyrus in the paper industry. They were the first to make paper in the world, and from the papyrus legs, they made mats, baskets, ropes, boats, and ships.
Third: Internal and external trade
* Internal trade
Boat riding in the Nile River – The practice of sailing (river navigation) was important in ancient Egypt, where food was transported on papyrus boats, stones for the construction of temples and commercial goods, and through the Nile River, the country’s main artery. Funeral processions to transport Pharaoh’s mummy to his burial place were also traveling across the Nile.
The Nile River and its branches helped to promote domestic trade. Boats and ships were carrying farmers and their crops between villages and cities. Local markets were held in various cities and villages, where farmers exchanged their products and crops. Barter was the basis of dealing and means of sale and purchase, and then emerged currency used in business operations, which were made of gold, silver, and copper. Alongside the Nile River as a means of transmission, ancient Egyptians relied on animals, such as donkeys or ox-drawn carts, to carry goods, and used scales and scissors, such as a mug, kebab, and cedar.
* Foreign trade
Foreign trade flourished, and the ancient Egyptians contacted the surrounding countries. The ships of the Egyptian merchant fleet in Red and Mediterranean Bahrain went to the port of Punt (Somalia), Phenicia (Lebanon), the Mediterranean islands and Nubia and loaded with various goods and goods. Egyptian ships carried Egyptian goods and goods of grain, papyrus, jewelry, linen textiles and loaded with goods such as cinnamon wood from Phenicia, perfumes, ebony, and ivory from Puntland, oils, wood and metal weapons from Syria and the Mediterranean islands.