Jupiter is the largest solar system. He is called the purchaser because he runs in his path which leads and goes and finds it without the cold and no refraction. The buyer was known to ancient astronomers and was associated with the legends and religions of many peoples. The Romans have named him Jupiter, the god of heaven and lightning. The Jupiter comes from the earth with a great brightness of a virtual magnitude of -2.94, making it the third body to shine in the night sky after the moon and the Venus.
Jupiter is the fifth planet in distance from the sun and the largest solar system. It is a gas giant and its mass is just under 1/1000 of the mass of the sun, but it is equal to two-thirds of the mass of the rest of the group’s planets. The classification of the gaseous giants includes Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune as well as the buyer. and these four planets are called Juvenil planets.
The buyer is mainly made up of hydrogen, and helium is just under a quarter of its mass. It often contains a rock nucleus made up of heavier elements. The shape of the buyer is spherical due to the speed of its large rotation. The outer atmosphere shows a clear differentiation of several bands in different length lines. Leading to turbulence and storms along these boundaries. The result of this is one of the features of the buyer is the Great Red Spot, a giant storm known at least since the seventeenth century when it was first spotted by the tracker. Surrounding the planet’s faint rings system, and a strong magnetic field. There are also 63 satellites orbiting it, including four large moons called Galileo’s moons that were discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610. The largest of these satellites is Ganymede, which is larger than the planet Mercury.
Several astronomical missions were dispatched to explore the buyer, most of them during the start of the Pioneer and Voyager programs and later by the Galileo orbital vehicle. The last vehicle flying over Jupiter was the New Horizons in 2007. The probe used Jupiter’s appeal to speed it up to follow Pluto’s journey. Future Jupiter and Jupiter Planes aim to explore the possibility of a liquid ocean under the ice sheet of the moon
The buyer is mainly composed of materials in the gas and liquid state, the largest giant planets in the solar system. Diameter at the equator 142.984 km and density of 1.326 g / cm 3, making it the second gaseous planets in terms of density after the planet Neptune, knowing that the density is less than the density of any of the four rocky planets in the solar system.
The buyer’s upper atmosphere consists of about 88-92% hydrogen and 8-12% helium.
Jupiter’s mass is half and half the mass of the rest of the solar system. The binary center of gravity is located at 1.068 solar radii from the center of the sun. Although the buyer’s diameter is 11 times greater than Earth’s diameter, its density is less. Jupiter is about 1,321 times the size of the Earth, yet its mass is only 318 times greater than Earth’s mass. Jupiter’s radius is about a tenth of the Sun’s diameter, about 0.001 of the Sun’s mass, so the density of both Germs is similar.
The buyer is believed to contain a dense nucleus containing a mixture of elements. This nucleus is surrounded by a layer of hydrogen with some helium. The outer layer is mostly made up of hydrogen molecules. The nucleus is often described as a rock nucleus but no information is available on its composition as well as the properties of the material, temperatures, and pressures at that depth. The presence of the nucleus was suggested in 1997 due to gravitational measurements, and these measurements indicated a mass of 12 to 45 times the mass of the earth or about 3% to 15% of the mass of Jupiter. It is believed that the nucleus was present at least in a period of buyer’s history. The morphological model suggested that the internal structure consisted of rocks or ice, and was large enough to attract hydrogen and helium from the primary stellar nebula. The nucleus is then shrunk due to the load currents of liquid mineral hydrogen mixed with the molten nucleus so that the components of the nucleus are elevated to higher layers within the planet. However, gravitational measurements taken so far are not sufficiently accurate, so the buyer’s nucleus may now be disappearing
Jupiter has the largest atmosphere among the planets of the solar system, its atmosphere extends up to a height of 5000 km. Since the buyer is a geosphere, it has been customary to consider the base of the atmosphere at the point where the atmospheric pressure is 10 bar or ten times the atmospheric pressure
The buyer is always covered with composite clouds of ammonia crystals, in addition to the possibility of ammonium picked. These clouds are placed in turbopez and are arranged in the form of different latitude bands, known as tropics. These regions are divided into brightly colored areas and other darker belts. The overlap of these conflicting cycles causes storms and disturbances and the wind speed is 100 m / s. The variation in width, color, and density from year to year is observed, but it remains well observed for astronomers To distinguish them. The depth of the layers of clouds about 50 km, and contain at least two layers of clouds. The bottom layer is a thick layer and the top layer is thinner and more transparent. It is possible to have a thin layer of water clouds placed under the ammonia layer, as evidence of lightning flashes detected in the buyer’s atmosphere. Lightning is usually caused by the polarity of the water, making it capable of conducting the electrical discharges needed to generate lightning. The discharge is more than a thousand times that of the Earth. Water clouds form thunderstorms driven by high heat from inside.
The brown and orange colors of the buyer’s clouds produce the vibrations of its constituents that change color when exposed to ultraviolet rays coming from the sun. But the exact composition of these clouds is uncertain, but it is believed to be compounds of phosphorus, sulfur or hydrocarbons. Color compounds are known as color swatches, which are mixed with a thicker, thicker layer. These areas occur when the cellular load increases, leading to the formation of ammonia crystals, which in turn hide the lower layers from view.
The buyer has a slightly pivotal deviation, which means that the polar region always receives less solar radiation than the tropical region receives. Convection within the interior is more effective than in the bipolar region, and this is believed to lead to a balance in the temperature of the layers of clouds
Great red spot and other whirlpools
The Great Red Spot is one of the most famous features of the Jupiter, a continuous hurricane located 22 degrees south of the equator. It is known that this spot has been identified since 1831 and possibly earlier in 1665. Some mathematical models indicate that this storm is a constant storm and permanent feature of the planet. Because of this large storm can be observed from the ground using a telescope with a nozzle of 12 cm or larger.
It is shaped like an ellipse and rotates counterclockwise and a full cycle is done every six days. The great Red Spot dimensions are 24-40,000 km X 12-14,000 km and are therefore large enough to have two or three planets with Earth’s diameter. The maximum altitude of the storm is 8 km above the surrounding cloud.
Such storms are common in geospatial planets due to atmospheric disturbances. Jupiter also has white spots and other oval structures as well. White tends to exist in relatively cold clouds in the upper atmosphere. The structure is warmer and is present in the layers of ordinary clouds. These storms can extend for several hours to several centuries.
There was strong evidence that the red spot was a storm, not a meteorological feature of the planet, and even before Voyager proved to be a storm. This spot rotates differentially to fit the entire atmosphere, sometimes faster and slower. Its rotation around the planet has been observed in its history records many times for any constant below it.
In the year 2000, atmospheric changes were observed in the southern hemisphere and were similar in appearance to the great red spot, but smaller. This storm originated from several small white storms, and these storms were observed in 1938. These white storms merged into one storm and increased their intensity and changed from white to red and were called the Red Red Spot.
The buyer has a faint ring system consisting of three main segments: the inner ring in the shape of a hoop known as the halo, a relatively luminous ring, while the outer ring is known as the thin thread or gossamer ring. This ring is believed to consist mainly of dust, While the middle ring is known as the main ring and consists mostly of projectiles coming from the satellites Adrastea and Metes. The lunar material is withdrawn to the buyer because of its great attractiveness. Thus, the material’s orbit deviates towards the buyer while new materials are added due to additional effects. Similarly, the Tepe and Amalthia produce dust into the thin thread. There is also evidence of a rocky ring along the Amalthea orbit that may be caused by a rocky collision with the Amalthea.
Jupiter limits a magnetic field 14 times larger than the Earth’s magnetic field. And ranges from 4.2 Gauss at the buyer’s equator to between 10-14 Gauss at the poles. Which makes it the largest magnetic field in the solar system except for sunspots. This field is believed to have been created by the eddy currents of the materials that are connected to the hydrogen nucleus. The sulfur dioxide gas from the Moon Eo is formed and forms a gas ring around the moon. This ionization produces oxygen and sulfur ions. These ions, in addition to the hydrogen ions present in the buyer’s atmosphere, form a plasma envelope at the buyer’s equator. The plasma envelope cools with the planet, distorting the planet’s bipolar magnetism and turning it into disc magnetism. Electrons within the plasma envelope generate strong radio signals that stimulate the generation of impulses ranging from 0.6 to 30 MHz.
The interaction between the buyer’s magnetic envelope and the solar wind causes a shock curve, which leads to the magnetic envelope of the buyer being surrounded by a magnetic separator located on the inner edge of the magnetic sheath. The solar wind interacts with the magnetosphere in this region, causing the magnetosphere to expand in the wind-facing part, which extends outward to the orbit of Saturn. The four largest moons of Jupiter are placed within the magnetosphere, making them protected from the solar wind.
The buyer’s magnetic envelope is responsible for radio emissions from the planet’s polar region. The interaction of this casing with the volcanic emission rings of the Io and the Moon moving in it causes the waves of the ions that carry the ions to the polar region to be released. As a result, radio waves are formed due to the periodic acceleration of the maser mechanism (amplification of shortwave by an alarm clock). This energy is produced along conical surfaces. When the earth intersects, with these cones, the radio waves of Jupiter are greater than those of the sun.
Orbit and rotation
Jupiter is the only planet in the solar system that has a binary mass center located outside the sun’s volume, about 7% of the sun’s radius. The average distance between the sun and Jupiter is about 778 million km, about 5.2 times the average distance between Earth and the sun. It completes its orbit around the Sun at 11.86 years, and this period is equal to 2/5 of Saturn’s orbital period, forming a 5: 2 orbital ring between the two largest planets in the group. The elliptical orbit of the Jupiter is 1.31 ° to Earth. Because of the orbital anomalies of 0.048, the distance between the sun and Jupiter varies every 75 million years between the bottom and the bottom, or between the nearest and farthest point on the planet along the orbit path.
The pivotal tendency of the buyer is relatively small and only 3.13 °. As a result, the planet does not experience significant seasonal changes, as opposed to Earth and Mercury, for example.
Jupiter rotation is the fastest rotation among the planets of the solar system, a full cycle around its axis in less than 10 hours. This results in a tropical bulge that is easy to see through terrestrial telescopes. Achieving this rotation requires gravity acceleration at the equator 1.67 m / s – 2, while gravitational acceleration reaches 24.79 m / s – 2. Therefore, the net acceleration surplus at the equator is 23.12 m / s – 2. The shape of the buyer is spherical, which means that the buyer’s diameter at the equator is greater than the diameter between the poles. The equatorial diameter of the poles between the poles is approximately 9275 km.
Since Jupiter is a non-solid planet, the upper atmosphere is subject to differential rotation. The Arctic rotation period is five minutes longer than in the equatorial region. Three systems are used for reference frames, especially when the graphical representation of atmospheric movement is required. The first system is applied from latitude 10 north to line 10 south, resulting in the shortest daily period of the planet, which is 9 hours, 50 minutes and 30 seconds. The second system includes all latitudes from north to south and produces 9 hours, 55 minutes and 40.6 seconds. The third system was defined by Kashovian astronomy and corresponds to the rotation of the magnetosphere, and its rotation period is the official period of the rotation of Jupiter.
The buyer has 64 satellites, of which 47 satellites are less than 10 kilometers in diameter and discovered since 1975. The four largest satellites are known as Galileo satellites
Is the four moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo Galilei in January 1610 AD. These satellites are the largest moons of Jupiter and derive their names from the lovers of Zeus: Ayo, Europe, Ganymede, and Calisto. The orbit of Io, Europe, and Ganymede is a model called Bernin Laplace. For each of the four sessions of the Io around Jupiter, Europe rotates two cycles completely and Ganymede revolves around one course altogether. This resonance causes attractive effects on these third satellites that distort their orbits in the form of an ellipse, and each moon receives an additional pull from its neighbor at the same point in each cycle. While the rising tidal force of the mass of Jupiter is trying to rotate their orbits.
The orbital anomalies of the orbits of these satellites cause a regular curve of the three satellites. The attractiveness of the buyer extends outside when approaching it, shrinking inside and becoming more spherical when you move away from it. This expansion and shrinkage cause the inner heat of the satellites to increase due to the friction caused by this mechanism. This tidal power is believed to cause the large volcanic activity of the nearest moon, which is subject to more tidal force than the rest. To a lesser extent, this activity appears in geological evidence on the surface of Europe in its early stages.
|Comparison between the satellites of Galillo and the moon of the Earth|
|The name||Diameter||Bloc||Orbital radius||Tropical period|
|How many||%||Kg||%||How many||%||day||%|
|Io||3643||105||8.9 x 10 22||120||421,700||110||1.77||7|
|Europe||3122||90||4.8 × 10 22||65||671,034||175||3.55||13|
|Ganemide||5262||150||14.8 x 10 22||200||1,070,412||280||7.15||26|
|Calisto||4821||140||10.8 x 10 22||150||1,882,709||490||16.69||61|
Jupiter moons were classified before the Voyager mission discoveries into four groups, each group was classified on the basis of common orbital factors. But the picture has been complicated since the success of the Voyager mission and the discovery of a large number of foreign satellites. Jupiter’s satellites are currently classified into eight major groups, although some of these groups are more distinct than others.
The moons of Jupiter are divided into two main sections, the first section containing eight inner moons with orbital orbits and circulating at the level of the Jupiter’s equator, which is regular moons and are thought to have formed from Jupiter. The rest of the satellites are irregular satellites and are not known the number and small orbits and elliptical, and is believed to be asteroids or fragments of asteroids captured because of Jupiter’s attractiveness. Unorganized satellites share similar orbital elements, suggesting a common origin hypothesis for each group. A large moon or a body of capture and crash may form these satellites.
|The inner satellites||The inner group consists of four small satellites each with a diameter of less than 200 km and an orbital radius of less than 200 000 km and has an orbital deviation of less than half a degree|
|Galileo moons||Consisting of four moons discovered by Galileo and Simon Morris and whose orbit ranges between 40,000 and 2,000,000 km and contains some of the largest satellites of the solar system|
|Thimisto||This group is a single moon and its orbit is located in the middle between the satellites of Galileo and Himalaya|
|Himalaya Group||A cluster of satellites whose orbits are between 11,000,000-12,000,000 km from the buyer.|
|Carbo||A case containing one other satellite located on the inner edge of the Anak group and circling the buyer with a retrograde movement|
|Anak Group||A group of satellites with a retrogressive movement and the limits of their orbits are not entirely known and range from 21,276,000 from the buyer to an average in the orbital deviation of up to 149 degrees.|
|Karem Group||It is also a group of satellites orbiting a retrograde motion with an average orbit of 23,404,000 km with an average orbital deviation of 165 degrees.|
|The Pacific Group||Is a group of moons moving with a retrograde motion around Jupiter at a distance of 22.8 to 24.1 gm and a Milan angle ranging from 144.5 ° to 158.3 °|
The buyer is usually the fourth in terms of lighting in the sky (after the sun, moon, and flower). Although Mars is sometimes more bright than Jupiter. This depends on the buyer’s position relative to the earth, which will change its apparent magnitude from -2.9 in the lightest mode to -1.6 in the corresponding position during conjunction with the sun. Similarly, its diameter varies from 50.1 to 29.8 arc seconds. The corresponding situation occurs when the buyer passes through the bottom, and this occurs once during the orbital period. The buyer approached Al-Hodes in March 2011.
The buyer passes through every 398.9 days during its rotation around the sun. This period is called a conjunction period and when this happens, the buyer seems to be subject to a downward movement for the stars. So it seems for a while that the buyer is moving back to the night sky performing an angular movement.
The orbital period of Jupiter is about 12 years old and corresponds to the constellations of the zodiac, and it is possible that this cycle is the basis of astrological constellations.
The phase angle does not exceed 11.5 degrees when it is visible from the ground because Jupiter’s orbit is outside the earth’s orbit. The buyer is shown to be fully illuminated when viewed by telescopes. Hilal was seen through space missions.
Jupiter’s observation dates back to the 7th or 8th century BC of Babylonian astronomers. The researcher in the history of Chinese astronomy Xie Zizong said that Gan De had discovered one of Jupiter’s satellites with the naked eye in 365 BC. If this is true, he would have discovered a moon for Jupiter two thousand years before Galileo. According to the Magistrate, Claudius Ptolemy constructed an astronomical model showing that the earth is the center of the universe and relying on the orbital orbit calculated Jupiter’s motion for Earth and estimated the orbital period of Jupiter around the Earth at 4332.38 days 11.86 years. The Ariaphata Mathematical and Indian astronomy in 499 using the model of the center of the earth to calculate the orbit of the buyer around the earth by 4332.2722 days, which is equivalent to 11.86 years
Monitoring using terrestrial telescopes
In 1610, Galileo discovered the four largest moons of Jupiter’s satellites – Io, Europe, Ganymede, and Castillo – using a telescope. It is believed to be the first discovery of the moons of the planets using the telescopes except for the Earth’s moon. Galileo was also the first to discover that the celestial movement was not centered around the earth. This was the main point that supported the theory of the centrality of the Sun to Copernicus, thereby supporting Galileo’s planetary motion theory of Copernicus, making it under the threat of the Inquisition. Giovanni Cassini, using his telescope in 1660, also marked strips and colored spots on Jupiter’s surface. As long as the rotation period of the planet. In 1690 he observed that the atmosphere was moving in a differential rotation.
The Great Red Spot is believed to have been spotted for the first time in 1664 by Robert Hook and in 1665 by Cassini. Pharmacist Heinrich Schöpp also published the first graph showing the details of the Great Red Spot in 1831.
But the observation of the Great Red Spot was lost between 1665 and 1708 before it became very clear in 1878. It also faded from the vision in 1883 and the beginning of the 20th century.
Giovanni Burley and Cassini made accurate schedules for the motion of Jupiter’s moons, allowing prediction of the times when the satellites were in front of or behind Jupiter.
Monitoring using a radio telescope
Bernard Burke and Kenneth Franken in 1955 identified 22.2 MHz radio pulses coming from Jupiter. The pulse period coincided with the planet’s rotation, making them re-determine the speed of rotation. The pulses coming from the buyer are found to be divided into two types: long pulses lasting several seconds, and short pulses that continue for a fraction of a second.
Scientists later discovered three types of radio waves emitted from Jupiter:
- Dimmers (wavelengths of tens of meters) change with the Jupiter’s rotation and are influenced by the interaction of the Io with the magnetic buyer’s envelope.
- The wavelength is in centimeters and the length of the wave is in centimeters and was discovered by Frank Drake and Hen Huffat in 1959. The signal is derived from the eccentric belt around the buyer’s equator, which produces a cyclotronic radiation from electrons that accelerates in Jupiter’s magnetic field.
- Thermal radiation caused by the heat of the atmosphere of the buyer.
Exploration by spacecraft
Since 1973, Jupiter has visited several spacecraft. One of the most important of these is the Pioneer 10 probe, the first probe to reach enough space from the largest solar system to send Earth discoveries about the properties and phenomena of the planet.
|Pioneer 10||3 December 1973||130,000 km|
|Pioneer 11||4 December 1974||34,000 km|
|Voyager 1||March 5, 1979||349,000 km|
|Voyager 2||July 9, 1979||570,000 km|
|Julius||February 8, 1992||408,894 km|
|February 4, 2004||120,000,000 km|
|Cassini||30 December 2000||10,000,000 km|
|New Horizons||February 28, 2007||2,304,535 km|
By the beginning of 1973, many spacecraft had maneuvers that made them able to explore areas of Jupiter. The Pioneer mission succeeded in obtaining close-up images of the buyer’s atmosphere and many of its moons. A larger radiological field was discovered than expected near the planet, and both vehicles were able to survive in this environment. The orbits of the two vehicles have been used to reassess the Jupiter system mass. The radio signal measurements gave good results and the best results were about the diameter of the planet and the amount of flattening in the poles.
After six years, Voyager’s mission succeeded in developing an understanding of Galileo’s satellites and discovering Jupiter’s rings. It also confirmed that the Great Red Spot is a hurricane. Comparison of the images taken by Voyager and Pioneer was observed to have changed on the spot, from orange to dark brown. He also discovered a space of ionized atoms along the course of the Ayo orbit, as flashes of lightning were observed on the dark side of the planet.
The next task was to explore the Jupiter probe working on Julius solar energy. A flight maneuver was conducted to achieve polar orbit around the sun. During the passage of the vehicle was studied the magnetic envelope of the buyer, but did not take pictures because the probe was not equipped with bottles. Another flight took place six years later but was very far away.
In 2000, the Cassini probe flew over Saturn and the Jupiter and supplied scientists with high-resolution images that had never been achieved before. On December 19, 2000, the probe took pictures of Himalaya, but the accuracy of the picture was so low that it did not allow the surface to be seen.
The probe, New Horizons, was on its way to Pluto over the Jupiter with the help of gravity and achieved the closest approach to the Jupiter on February 28, 2007. The probe’s cameras identified a plasma out of the Io volcanoes and studied all four galaxies in detail, as well as a distant distance from the Himalaya and Elaras. Buyer system on September 4, 2006.
The custom vehicle has not yet been routed to Jupiter’s orbit by Galileo. Which went into orbit around the buyer on December 7 of 1995. The orbit around the buyer has been more than seven years. He carried out several flights over the satellites of Galileo and Amalthea. The probe saw the Shofar Levi 9 meteorite approaching Jupiter in 1994, giving a unique view of the event. The information gained from the Jupiter system was great, but Galileo’s probe design was limited and the antenna failed to transmit that information.
A small probe of the spacecraft was released in July 1995 to detect the atmosphere. The buyer entered the atmosphere on December 7. With the help of a 150 mph windshield, Masafi landed the data for 57.6 minutes and then broke the result of the pressure (about 22 times the atmospheric pressure and at a temperature of up to 153 ° C). It is likely to melt after that and possibly evaporate. Galileo experimented with the same experiment when he was deliberately directed to the planet on September 21, 2003, at a speed greater than 50 km / h to avoid the possibility of a crash and possible pollution from the Moon Europe, which was hoped to have a probability of life.
NASA plans to conduct a mission to study buyer details through a polar orbit called Jono’s mission. The probe was launched in 2011.
Relationship with the solar system
The attractiveness of the buyer was influenced by the sun in the form of the solar system. Most of the orbits of the solar system are located closer to Jupiter’s orbit than to the sun’s level except Mercury, the only planet closest to the Sun’s equator. The Kirkwood gap within the asteroid belt is also due to the buyer’s influence. It is also likely that the buyer is responsible for the severe late bombing that occurred in the history of the inner solar system.
Jupiter’s attractiveness with its satellites controls a huge number of asteroids that invade the Lagrange points that precede and follow Jupiter in its orbit around the sun. These asteroids are known as Trojan asteroids, and these asteroids are divided into Greek and other Iroadic asteroids. The first such asteroid was the 588 Achilles discovered by Max Wolf in 1906. Since then, more than 2,000 asteroids have been discovered. The largest of these asteroids is Hector 624.
Most of the short-orbit patrol comets belong to the buyer’s family and are known as half-axis comets less than the buyer’s. The origin of these comets is believed to be the Keiber Belt outside Neptune orbit. The orbit of these comets strikes as it approaches the buyer for a period of less time and then its orbit rotates due to the regular influence of Jupiter and Sun’s gravity.
The buyer knew the solar system amplifier, because of the great gravity effect, and the buyer positioned near the solar system’s internal system. It is more frequently receiving comets in the solar system. The buyer was believed to serve as a shield to protect the inner solar system from comet bombing. However, recent computer simulations show that the Jupiter does not reduce the number of comets passing through the inner solar system. Jupiter’s attraction draws the orbits of a number of comets inward roughly equal to the number of comets that fly. This subject is still controversial among astronomers. Some believe they pull comets into the ground, while others believe they protect the Earth from the comets of the Ort cloud.
A survey of historical astronomical drawings was conducted in 1997, and it was suggested that the Cassini astronomer may have recorded a collision effect in 1690. The survey also identified eight monitoring cases for small collisions.
The collision of July 1994
The asteroid Shumikar-Levi discovered 9 in 1993 and was close to Jupiter. He promised astronomical measurements on him in 1994, according to a computer study that he would fall on Mars within two months due to the intensity of his attraction to the buyer. Astronomers are preparing to record this unique event in the solar system. They saw how the asteroid, whose measurements were about 2 km to 21 pieces, was divided into a sequential chain and destined for Jupiter. According to calculations, the 21 successive shrapnel struck the buyer between July 16-22, 1994 in the southern half of the planet, the first direct monitoring of collisions between two grams of the solar system. The energy generated by these collisions was estimated to be about 50 Hiroshima bombs. These collisions provided useful data on the composition of the buyer’s atmosphere.
The 2009 collision
On July 19, 2009, a collision site was discovered along a nearly 216-degree line according to the second system. This collision is located behind the black spot in the buyer’s atmosphere and is close to the size of the fusion spot resulting from the merger of three hurricanes. Monitoring showed a bright spot where the collision occurred, meaning that the collision led to the heating of the lower layers of the atmosphere in the area near the South Pole.
By comparing the Shumikar-Levi collision with the Jupiter event in 2009, scientists estimate that the Jupiter event resulted from the fall of an asteroid with a diameter of less than 1 kilometer on Jupiter.
The probability of life:
The 1953 Miller-Yuri experiment showed that the interaction of lightning and chemical compounds present in the Earth’s primitive atmosphere could create organic compounds (including amino acids), the infrastructure for building a living unit. The atmosphere in the simulation involved the presence of water, methane, ammonia and hydrogen molecules, all of which were found in the buyer’s atmosphere. But the buyer’s atmosphere has strong vertical currents, which will carry these compounds to the lower layers, and the high temperature in the lower layers will stop this chemical process, which will prevent any form of organic compounds as it is on the ground.
It is considered unlikely that a Jupiter-like life exists for the buyer. There is little water in the atmosphere. The prospect of any hard surface on the buyer will fall into deep layers, which means that he will be under tremendous pressure. Prior to Voyager’s mission, there was a hypothesis that there was some kind of life in the upper layers of the buyer’s atmosphere based on ammonia or water. This hypothesis is based on the pattern of the marine environment in the sea, which depends on the presence of marine plankton in the upper layers of photosynthesis. The possibility of oceans under the crust of some Jupiter moons may lead to the possibility of life there.