The French Revolution the French Revolution
Broke out in 1789, as a result of a number of factors that accumulated and led to its eventual emergence. This revolution was considered one of the most important revolutions of the modern era. It brought new concepts to the modern era; influenced political and economic principles and systems; in the political and cultural history of France and Europe in general. The revolution began in 1789 and ended almost in 1799. The governments of the French Revolution abolished the absolute monarchy, feudal privileges of the aristocracy, and clergy.
Causes of the revolution and its developments Indirect causes:
First: the political factor
It is the very bad political system of absolute monarchy, the exploitation of the will of the king by his entourage, his wife, senior nobles, clerics and other members of the royal palace so that people are not safe for their lives. Since the second half of the seventeenth century (the era of Louis XIV), absolute monarchy was based on the divine right or what was known as the theory of the divine government of kings in France, and Louis XIV says the state I, and extended this idea to his successors was the system of government in France before The Revolution was Absolutely Tyrannical Louis XVI, who lived in the era of the Revolution (1774-1793), was known for his weakness of character and the control of the diocese.
Nevertheless, he was adamant about absolute power, rejecting all kinds of political development.
One of the disadvantages of the absolute rule suffered by France was the sealed letters that Louis 16 issued to avenge critics of his rule, as well as to incite the country into wars that could only satisfy the king’s desire. The number of the king’s entourage reached 18,000 when the majority of the people lived in misery and misery.
The administrative system was characterized by corruption due to the absence of administrative unity, high customs performance between the regions and the spread of bribery. All this has prevented the consolidation of national ties between the various sides of France and was followed by those who came after him until the overthrow of the revolution absolute monarchy in the era of Louis XVI.
Second: the social factor
The French society was divided into three classes: the nobility associated with the palace, which enjoyed all privileges, including the right to government jobs and tax exemptions. They called themselves “the owners of blue blood,” distinguishing them from the rest of the people, and the clergy, The French monarchy, which enjoyed the rights and privileges of its heirs and nobility of the era of feudalism and live a life of luxury and madness, and as a result people hated them where a few people belonged to the first and second classes, but they had the largest share of wealth and influence And privileges.
And the last class is the class of the public or the general population of the peasantry and the petty bourgeoisie and was the largest class in society, then numbered 25 million people, the three were deprived of all privileges and suffer from deprivation and payment of taxes and forced labor and its children exploited in wars, which had a knock on French society for political power and social status.
Third: The economic factor
It is one of the main factors that fueled the revolution. The treasury of the country has been suffering from a great resource shortage since the days of Louis XIV because of its continuing wars, because of France’s financing of the American War of Independence, the lavishness of the king’s court and the privileges of nobles. (Necker) and Calone, all failed in their mission as a result of the opposition of the aristocracy to the reform projects, in addition to the economic crisis and the miraculous rise in prices that affected the lives of the French people who could not afford it. Buy a loaf in bread, especially during the famine that swept through France in 1788.
Fourth: The intellectual factor:
The revolution was half a century of intellectual and cultural development in France during the Enlightenment. This thought influenced the revolution by revealing the deteriorating conditions in which France lived. Most of the criticism was directed at the Church and the government and their disadvantages. Voltaire, Montesquieu, and Rousseau are among the leading pioneers of this intellectual movement.
Voltaire’s ideas have awakened the oppressed classes and people quickly accept his sarcastic style, acerbic criticism, and clear language. Montesquieu, 1689-1755, writes of justice and the constitution and the need to separate the three powers (executive, legislative and judicial) from the English Constitution; His writings continued to influence the French from generation to generation.
Rousseau defined the government as a social contract that guaranteed the people protection and was approved by the people. The ruler here ruled as an agent of the nation and he had to abide by what the nation wanted. If he deviated from his post, Then Russo denies that there is a ruler deriving his powers from a source.