The History of Middle Age

The History of Middle Age

The Middle Ages is a historical period from the 5th to the 15th century. The Middle Ages began following the fall of the Roman Empire in 476 and extended until the early modern era. The Middle Ages range from the end of the Roman Empire to the fifth century until the establishment of the Royal States and the beginning of the European geographical discoveries and the return of humanism and the movement of religious reform of the Protestant beginning from 1517. These events led to the entry of Europe in the stage of the beginning of modernity followed by the stage of the industrial revolution.

Evolution of the concept

 

The concept of the Middle Ages for a long period of time through the study of history and socio-economic formations, as well as the literature and art of this period, has been exclusively addressed to Western European countries. However, modern science does not follow this approach, which leads to the consideration of this era as a phenomenon isolated from the general historical context in the development of feudal society, in spite of the privacy of this region and its historical process and vitality, which appeared in the completion of social forms and clarity, Reflected on its intellectual and cultural structure in a clear and distinctive manner, as well as the joint connection with the center of Europe and Scandinavia in the unity of religious belief and the convergence of artistic methods.

Divisions

Proponents of the earlier approach worked to divide the Middle Ages into three phases, and to define the boundaries between them. The first phase of the late fifth century begins in the middle of the 10th century and is characterized by a sharp conflict and deep conflict between the Roman-Roman art structures and the Vandalia elements, thus settling on hybrid solutions. The second stage witnessed the spread and stability of a general style known as the Romanesque, while the third phase included the Gothic, extending from the second half of the twelfth century to the beginning of the fifteenth century, which emerged from the birth of a new quality in Western European culture, The Middle Ages.

Early Middle Ages

 

This early period is referred to as the Dark Ages. The early centuries of the Middle Ages, especially from the 5th to the 10th century AD, were closer to being dark, where the civilization of Western Europe suffered from degeneration, leaving only the ancient Roman civilization From the schools of monasteries, cathedrals, tiles and royal palaces. The science of the Greeks has almost disappeared. Those who took note of a few class of people were also lost a lot of old technical and technical skills. The scientists, in their ignorance, have accepted popular tales and rumors that they are true.

In contrast to the total darkness of western Europe, life was brighter in other parts of the world. Muslims in Andalusia was at the same time culturally and culturally rich and raised in all fields such as medicine, engineering, optics, mathematics, astronomy, etc. Then these sciences and knowledge moved from Spain to the West later, and the light of Arab Islamic science spread from China eastward to the borders of Europe and the West. The Byzantine Empire also maintained many features of the lives of the Greeks and Romans.

At the beginning of the eleventh century AD, economic and political life began to flourish in Europe. The recovery led to tremendous cultural development during the twelfth century AD.

The disintegration of Roman society

Church and Monasticism

Lincoln Cathedral. Lincoln in England is an example of a cathedral city.

Carolingians

Main article: Frankish Empire, Carolingian Empire, and Government of the Carolingian Empire

The coronation of Charlemagne depicted in the 14th-century Grandes Chroniques de France

Costumes of serfs or slaves. Approximately 10-20% of the rural population of Carolingian Europe consist of serfs and slaves.

Charlemagne’s cathedral at Aachen built 792/805 AD

Arts

 

Main article: Medieval arts and medieval architecture

Basilica of San Vitale Ravenna, Italy 548 AD

St. Peter-on-the-Wall Chapel.England 662 AD

The first features of the art of the Middle Ages were formed in the midst of the crisis that resulted from the collapse of the ancient world, the disintegration of the system of slavery and slavery, the domination of feudalism and the subsequent decline of the classical plastic method, the changing nature of modeling in the artistic culture and the function of social art on the one hand and the birth of forms and artistic genres that meet the aesthetic needs And the religious beliefs of the state and religious institutions on the other hand, as well as the historical events witnessed by this era of mass migrations of peoples as a result of the various military conquests, and new phenomena embodied in the widespread spread of culture and the arts, after it was a moratorium on bitter The emergence of local schools and the foundations of national culture, and the flourishing of folk art, which reveal a fertile imagination and a peaceful nature, have been remarkable for the richness of decorative forms and the art of applied art, which has given an important impetus to the emergence of the monumental art based on the structures of an association.

The arts went to the general public after the farmer received the cannabis, which replaced the deprived of the citizen and the exercise of aspects of spiritual and social life new rights represented in the recognition of a member of the social fabric, and witnessed a qualitative change in the consciousness of the masses, and a wide spread of doctrines and intellectual currents that have implemented To large segments of the population.

The culture of the Middle Ages is rich and very numerous. The development of the feudal system led to the emergence of cultural centers spread throughout the region that had mutual relations and influences. The arts of many countries in Europe, Asia, and North Africa were very high (such as the Arab Islamic State, India, China) For example, a great prosperity which left a profound impact on all aspects of life, which contributed to the development of landscapes and the silent nature of the protégé at a time when asceticism in life was the present feature of Byzantine art, the then Indian art of sensual perceptions of the world and a great sense of amnesty Of nature and Nzgaha, as well as the East was like miniatures of the scenic beauty that reflected the joys of life poetically upscale.

Architecture

 

On the aesthetic and intellectual foundations of the arts of the Middle Ages, the virtual spiritual tendency led to the establishment of a formal artistic system that adopts the conventional conditionality in portraying reality and its relation. It has its often rigid origins, which is known as the iconography.

This approach is to conceal the material sense of things, Time and space are dependent on a theological conception of existence and the universe. Time is known to include the beginning of creation to the Day of Ascension (Judgment), the place is dominated by divine appreciation, and the real lighting (natural or artificial origin is lost) It emphasizes a typical, conditional illumination, a metaphor for the transcendent and solitary divine light and its eternal permanence, or that shining dome of the interior of things and creatures.

The place became a flat space due to the use of the front view, the omission of the rear view, as well as the result of the compression of the spatial projections to reach the (shallow depth) where the elements and their mutual relations in the vacuum has an imitative character confirms the front surface, and the result of the disproportionate proportionality and the color became clear and general, Which is derived from its surroundings and attached to a neutral center. Its relationship with its original identity has changed.

In the system of iconography, it now has symbolic and serene connotations (brown, for example, indicating the mystery of the divine secret), sometimes bearing different and different purposes: It symbolizes the sun, fire, summer; it is another sign of him was responding flamboyantly and bright in the context in which the two colors black and white Camden, then understood as a sign to the author of Christ Emmanuel (God with us). But if the celestial colors are destroyed and the red color dominates the color halo, it means the fall of the sins committed and the resurrection of everything that is colored by the blood of the divine sacrifice.

This symbolic function related to color made him perform an unusual act, radically changed his relation to the composition and its importance in the imaginative solutions, forcing the photographer in the context of these data imposed on maneuvering and violation of proportionality, which requires composition, that is to prolong or reduce an element in order to subject it to limits (Which also distinguishes Persian and Japanese depictions). Attention is drawn to the wide use of the golden color symbolizing the majesty and holiness of the kingdom of heaven, or reflecting a general image of light (with multiple meanings and other interpretations), thus enhancing the acceptance of flat space in the images, and the apparent presence of black and white colors, And in detailing the details of the fabrics.

This symbolic function related to color made him perform an unusual act, radically changed his relation to the composition and its importance in the imaginative solutions, forcing the photographer in the context of these data imposed on maneuvering and violation of proportionality, which requires composition, that is to prolong or reduce an element in order to subject it to limits (Which also distinguishes Persian and Japanese depictions).

Attention is drawn to the wide use of the golden color symbolizing the majesty and holiness of the kingdom of heaven, or reflecting a general image of light (with multiple meanings and other interpretations), thus enhancing the acceptance of flat space in the images, and the apparent presence of black and white colors, And in detailing the details of the fabrics.

This symbolic function related to color made him perform an unusual act, radically changed his relation to the composition and its importance in the imaginative solutions, forcing the photographer in the context of these data imposed on maneuvering and violation of proportionality, which requires composition, that is to prolong or reduce an element in order to subject it to limits (Which also distinguishes Persian and Japanese depictions). Attention is drawn to the wide use of the golden color symbolizing the majesty and holiness of the kingdom of heaven, or reflecting a general image of light (with multiple meanings and other interpretations), thus enhancing the acceptance of flat space in the images, and the apparent presence of black and white colors, And in detailing the details of the fabrics.

The mosaics, in addition to the icon, occupied an important space in photography, especially in the Byzantine period. They were used in paving floors, or on walls such as mosaics in the Basilica of St. Vitali in Ravenna (about 548 AD) representing the Emperor Justinian and his wife Theodora. The silhouette and silhouette, the silhouette, and the mosaic in the Easter church of Isaac (7th century), with its charming reception and lively sense of life, and in the Daphne monastery near Athens (eleventh century) boast its grandeur and brawn.

It should be noted that the wall paintings in the churches were incorporated into an equal system, including mosaics, frescoes, and dry frescoes, which were converted into walls and contracts. They were distributed according to the studied patterns of the temple plan and entered into a unified artistic center with stained glass in windows and icons distributed to the icon holder iconostasis.

The composition was based on the rotation of geometric shapes with monotonous rhythms, giving the place a generalized and abstract image, and space was excluded as much as possible. This approach in the field of miniatures resulted in the presence of the decorative tendency and the abundance of decorations in the decoration of manuscripts such as (Travel News Paris Version, the tenth century National Library in Paris).

The sculpture was characterized by intense emotion, especially in Gothic art, and the spatial scaling of all façades (the fifth-century Ephesus, the Museum of Art, Vienna) gradually faded, and sometimes included life-views and stylistic forms. Ancient traditions dating back to the Greco-Roman art remained in the works of the applied arts, which were executed with various materials of stone, ivory, metal, port, weaving and wall carpeting. Early in the fifth century, new traditions of city planning in the form of radial and semi-diagonal (Constantinople) began to emerge. In the sixth century in the Balkan Peninsula, high-rise cities were divided into districts divided by multi-role buildings, And its exterior appearance corridors based on columns while the Syrian cities have a different character depending on the nature of the place.

The gothic, derived from one of the Germanic tribes, was crowned by the arts of the Middle Ages in western and central Europe, as well as partly east. In the early nineteenth century, the term Romanesque style was introduced in the period between the 10th and 12th centuries. It defined the phases of gothic stages: early, mature, late, The pro-Catholic Church and the establishment of a feudal ecclesiastical system produced an ideology and culture characterized by its extreme privacy. The religious arts were dominated by religious meanings and content. The style of thinking with symbols and canyons and conditional language was inherited from the Roman style, and it was the main feature of the rich systems. The cathedral was especially important because it is the most complex example combining architecture, sculpture, and photography (mostly stained glass).

The evolution of gothic reflected profound changes in the medieval society and structure from the beginnings of the central state, such as the prosperity of cities, the rise of civicism, the forces represented by merchants and craftsmen, and the knights of the court. The development of social consciousness and technical progress weakened the dominance of dogmatic and opened the door to the possibility of real awareness and aesthetic representation; new architectural patterns emerged, urban and housing planning was markedly developed and bridges were built. The cities of the kings and the feudalists gradually turned into complex fortresses that sometimes included places of worship. The city often mediated a great palace or a church that was overshadowed by its role and became a center of city life and public affairs.

The complex structure of the Gothic church, which was an achievement of the engineering knowledge, went beyond the silent Roman style, the relaxation of the walls and the shoulders, and the creation of a dynamic unit in its inner space, which enriched the artistic structure and made it more complex. The sculpture was one of the most important arts in the world, and it acquired rich artistic and intellectual content. It came in sophisticated formulations. Instead of the stoneware of the Roman statues and its materials, objects of a dynamic nature were replaced by some of them. And showed the interest in the forms of nature and realistic, and the beauty of the human body and internal feelings, and emerging formulations of the themes of motherhood, suffering and anxiety caused by the confusion regarding the moral values, and the hardness of the human soul in the defense of the ideals and higher values, draws attention to the juxtaposition of singing and tragic with the spiritual attribute of great, A tone of social ridicule, exaggeration of imagination, and folklore, especially in acute life observations. This period witnessed the flourishing of books and applied art as a result of the development of the lost level and workshop equipment.

The first features of Gothic in northern France were formed in the mid-twelfth century and culminated in the first half of the thirteenth century (Notre-Dame de Paris, Paris, 1163-1757). The statues in the temples were an integrated symbolic system, The most prominent of these were the sculptures of cathedrals (Chartres, Reims, Amiens, Strasbourg), and in the late stage the statues of the temple were made of gilded wood, characterized by their sharp expressions and scenes of the pain of Christ and the saints in particular.

Gothic reached the height of its revival in Germany in the mid-13th century (the Cathedral of Naumburg). Although the early method was preceded by other countries, internal political shocks delayed its spread, while in Italy in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries some elements of the Gothic were combined with the Roman style, each with its pointed gothic vaults and flints Architecture, with the staticness of the Roman architecture and the clarity of descent (Siena Church).

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